The book's additional significance is to be found in the wider lesson that a future U. Haass took part in the decision to wage the war against Saddam Hussein's Iraq in his capacity as the senior National Security Council staffer for the Middle East. In that role, he helped the national security adviser, Brent Scowcroft, define Saddam's sudden seizure of Kuwait as an unacceptable act of aggression that threatened the stability of the Middle East and the survival of the pro-U.
Sign in Subscribe. Rioting erupted in Khartoum, killing nearly In , the slaughter in Darfur escalated, and the Khartoum government remained defiantly indifferent to the international communities' calls to stop the violence. The 7, African Union AU peacekeepers deployed to Darfur proved too small and ill equipped a force to prevent much of it. A fragile peace deal in May was signed between the Sudanese government and the main Darfur rebel group; two smaller rebel groups, however, refused to sign.
The UN reported that there has in fact been a dramatic upsurge in the violence since the agreement. The Sudanese government reneged on essential elements of the accord, including the plan to disarm the militias and allow a UN peacekeeping force into the region to replace the modest AU force.
Khartoum eventually agreed to allow the modest AU force to remain in the country until the end of , but rejected a hybrid AU-UN peacekeeping force entering the country. Libya hosted peace talks ni October, but several rebel groups boycotted the proceedings, and the summit ended shortly after the opening ceremony. In July , the UN Security Council voted unanimously to deploy as many as 26, peacekeepers from the African Union and the United Nations forces to help end the violence in Darfur.
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The African Union peacekeeper base in Darfur was attacked in September. Ten peacekeepers were killed. Days later, the town was razed, leaving some 7, Darfuris homeless. In Feb. In May, the Court issued arrest warrants for Haroun and Ali Kosheib, a Janjaweed leader, charging them with mass murder, rape, and other crimes.
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The Sudanese government refused to hand over them over to the Court. Kushayb was arrested by Sudanese police in October He was not, however, handed over to the ICC. The Bush administration expanded sanctions on Sudan in May, banning 31 Sudanese companies and four individuals from doing business in the U. The SPLA claimed that the governing party, the National Congress Party, had ignored its concerns over boundary between the north and south and how to divide the country's oil wealth.
Sudan faced international criticism once again in January , when Musa Hilal, a Janjaweed leader, was appointed to a top government position as an adviser to the minister of federal affairs. Government forces and the janjaweed resumed their attacks in the Darfur region in February , forcing as many as 45, people to flee their homes.
THE PARADOX OF TWO SUDANS: The CPA and the Road to Partition, by Mansour Khalid
The government claimed it was targeting the Justice and Equality Movement, a rebel group that has become increasingly powerful and is believed to be linked to the government of Chad. Civilians in the region, however, say the attacks have continued after the rebels escape. The Justice and Equality Movement launched a bold attack in May, coming within a few miles of Khartoum before being repulsed by government troops.
It was the first time that the conflict in Darfur has threatened to spill over into Khartoum. Moreno-Ocampo also said Bashir "purposefully targeted civilians" and used "rapes, hunger, and fear" to terrorize civilians. Many observers feared that Bashir would respond to the charges with further violence. The ICC issued an arrest warrant for Bashir in March , charging him with war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Darfur region. An indictment for genocide was rejected by the court, and Moreno-Ocampo appealed the decision.
Bashir responded by shutting down the 13 aid agencies that operate relief camps in Sudan and assist millions of people in Darfur. The UN said that as a result, 1. In February , Moreno-Ocampo won his appeal and the ICC was ordered to review the evidence to determine if Bashir should be tried for genocide. The court formally charged him with three counts of genocide in July.
It was the first time the court has charged a person with genocide. In July , an international tribunal at The Hague redefined the border of Sudan's oil-rich Abyei region, giving the North rights to the lucrative Heglig oil field, and the South retained rights to other large oil fields in Abyei. Several opposition parties boycotted the election, and international observers questioned the fairness of it, citing ballot-box stuffing and other allegations of fraud.
Bashir's supporters cite the marked improvement in infrastructure completed during his presidency—new schools, hospitals, and roads. All are products of the oil boom. A referendum on Southern independence is scheduled for January President Bashir has vowed to honor the results of the vote.
In a historic seven-day secessionist referendum that began in southern Sudan on January 9, , The referendum was a provision of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which ended a year civil war that killed 2. President Bashir accepted the results and said he would not seek reelection when his term expires in The Bush administration negotiated the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which in addition to setting the date of the referendum also called for people in the contested region of Abyei to participate in the vote.
That vote, however, has been delayed because a decision on what constitutes a resident of Abyei has not been reached.
Second Sudanese Civil War - Wikipedia
Tribal leaders in the region have made it clear that their loyalty lies with the south, but there has not been a date set for a vote in Abyei. Any declaration of affiliation with the south by Abyei could trigger an attack from the north. Abyei sits between northern and southern Sudan and has historically served as a bridge between the two.
Since voting began in southern Sudan, at least 23 people have died in Abyei, confirming speculation that the region continues to be a matter of contention. On July 9, , the Republic of South Sudan declared its independence and became Africa's 54th state. Thousands celebrated in the streets of South Sudan's capital, Juba. Salva Kiir, South Sudan's president, signed the interim constitution. However, even as South Sudan celebrated its independence, Abyei's uncertainty was only one obstacle that awaits the fledgling state.
South Sudan also needs to establish a new government and constitution. Instability and conflict with Sudan over oil plagued South Sudan since independence. Sudan launched air attacks into South Sudan, the north accused the south of arming militants in the north, and both accused each other of inciting a border war. Tension between the two nations peaked in early as the economies in both countries continued to shrink and a food crisis intensified in the south, emphasizing the need for oil revenues.
As a full-scale war loomed, the two sides negotiated a non-aggression agreement under pressure from the African Union, the U. Within days, however, South Sudan accused the north of violating the agreement. The countries teetered on the brink of border war in April Both sides traded ground and aerial attacks, and Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir said he would not negotiate with South Sudan because it only responds to "the gun and bullets. South Sudan, where the oil reserves are located, has agreed to compensate Sudan for the use of its oil pipeline in the form of both an amortized lump sum as well as a per-barrel payment.
Financial details were not released. After more than a year of no oil, Sudan and South Sudan reached an agreement in March , brokered by the African Union, to resume oil production within the month. The agreement established a timeline for resumption of oil production, and addressed other issues including security and border demarcation.
Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir's austerity measures led to the doubling of prices on cooking oil and gas—and the worst riots in decades. Beginning in late Sept. In an unofficial referendum held on Oct. The unsurprising results were not recognized by the government of either country, nor did the other tribe, the Misseriya—who side with Sudan—nor the African Union support the vote.